Electronica Theory, Instrument & Composition Timeline
from 1700 - 2000
References to Instruments & Musical Compositions
Experiments with electricity to create musical sound begin as early as 1759 when the French Jesuit priest Jean Baptiste Delaborde of Paris created an electrical harpsichord called the 'Clavecin Électrique' which was striclty speaking an 'electo-mechanical' instument, the device used a keyboard to control vibrating tuned strips to produce sounds. Experimental instruments incorporating solenoids, motors, and other electromechanical elements continued to be invented throughout the 19th century such as William Duddell's 'singing arc'. The German physicist, mathematician and author of the seminal work "Sensations Of Tone: Psychological Basis for Theory of Music" (c1860) Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894)was the first physicist to undertake an analystical study of sound. Helmholtz created an electronically controlled device to analyse combinations of tones the "Helmholtz Resonator", using electromagnetically vibrating metal tines and glass or metal resonating spheres the machine could be used for analysing the constituent tones that create complex natural sounds. Helmholtz was concerned solely with the scientific analysis of sound and had no interest in direct musical applications. The theoretical musical ideas were provided by Ferruccio Busoni, the Italian composer and pianists who's influential essay "Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music" was inspired by accounts of Thaddeus Cahill's 'Telharmonium'.
'Clavecin Électrique' Jean Baptiste Delaborde France 1759
1870-1915: Early Experiments
The first electronic instruments built from 1870 to 1915 used a variety of techniques to generate sound: the tone wheel (used in the Telharmonium and the Chorelcello)- a rotating metal disk in a magnetic field causing variations in an electrical signal, an electronic spark causing direct fluctuations in the air (used uniquely in William Duddell's "Singing Arc' in 1899) and Elisha Grey's self vibrating electromagnetic circuit in the 'Electronic Telegraph', a spin-off from telephone technology. The tone wheel was to survive until the 1950's in the Hammond Organ but the experiments with self oscillating circuits and electric arcs were discontinued with the development of vacuum tube technology.
The Electro-mechanical Piano Msr Hipps Switzerland 1867
The Musical Telegraph Elisha Grey USA 1876
Alexander Graham Bell - Telephone 1877
Thomas Edison - Phonograph 1878
The Singing Arc William Duddel UK 1899
The Telharmonium Thaddeus Cahill USA 1897
1915-1960: The Vacuum Tube Era
The engineer and prolific US inventor Lee De Forest patented the first Vacuum tube or triode in 1906, a refinement of John A. Fleming's electronic valve. The Vacuum tube's main use was in radio technology but De Forest discovered that it was possible to produce audible sounds from the tubes by a process known as heterodyning. twentieth century by radio engineers experimenting with radio vacuum tubes. Heterodyning effect is created by two high radio frequency sound waves of similar but varying frequency combining and creating a lower audible frequency, equal to the difference between the two radio frequencies (approximately 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz). De Forest was one amongst several engineers to realise the musical potential of the heterodyning effect and in 1915 created a musical instrument, the "Audion Piano" . Other instruments to first exploit the vacuum tube were the 'Theremin' (1917) 'Ondes Martenot' (1928), the 'Sphäraphon' (1921) the 'Pianorad' (1926). The Vacuum tube was to remain the primary type of audio synthesis until the invention of the integrated circuit in the 1960's.
The Choralcelo Melvin Severy USA 1909
Marinetti - Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism 1909
Pratella - The Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music 1911
The "Intonarumori" Luigi Russolo Italy 1913
Lee De Forest - The Audion Piano USA 1915
Lee DeForest -Oscillator 1915
The Optophonic Piano Vladimir Rossiné Soviet Union 1916
The Theremin Leon Termen Soviet Union 1917
Lev Sergeyvich Termen (Leo Theremin) - The Theremin 1920
The Sphäraphon Jörg Mager Germany 1921
The Staccatone Hugo Gernsbak Germany 1923
KurbelSphäraphon Jörg Mager Germany 1923
The Pianorad Hugo Gernsbak Germany 1926
The Dynaphone René Bertrand France 1927
The Celluphone Pierre Toulon & Krugg Bass France 1927
The Clavier à Lampes A.Givelet & E.Coupleaux France 1927
The Klaviatursphäraphon or Sphaerophon Jörg Mager Germany 1928
The Ondes-Martenot Maurice Martenot France 1928
The Superpiano E. Spielmann Austria 1928
Piano Radio-Électrique A.Givelet & E.Coupleaux France 1929
The Givelet A.Givelet & E.Coupleaux France 1929
The Sonorous Cross Nikolay Obukhov France 1929
The Hellertion B.Helberger & P.Lertes Germany 1929
Hammond - Electronic Organ 1929
Givelet and Coupleux - Synthesizer 1929
The Trautonium Dr Freidrich Trautwein Germany 1930
The Ondium Péchadre H. Péchadre France 1930
The Rhythmicon Henry Cowell & Leon Termen USA 1930
The Terpsitone Leon Termen USA/USSR 1930
The Theremin Cello Leon Termen USA 1930
The Westinghouse Organ R.C.Hitchock USA 1930
The Sonar N.Anan'yev Soviet Union c1930
Schillinger - Electricity, a Musical Liberator 1931
Saraga-Generator Wolja Saraga Germany 1931
The "Ekvodin" V.A.Gurov Soviet Union 1931
The Trillion Tone Organ A. Lesti & F. Sammis. USA 1931
The Variophone Yevgeny Sholpo Soviet Union 1932
The Emiriton A.Ivanov & A.Rimsky-Korsakov Soviet Union 1932
The Emicon N.Langer USA 1932
The Rangertone Organ Richard H.Ranger USA 1932
L'Orgue des Ondes Armand Givelet France 1933
The Electrochord Oskar Vierling Germany 1933
Syntronic Organ I.Eremeef & L.Stokowski USA 1934
The Polytone Organ A. Lesti & F. Sammis USA 1934
The Hammond Organ Laurens Hammond USA 1935
The Photona Ivan Eremeef and L. Stokowski USA 1935
The sonothèque L. Lavalée France 1936
The Heliophon Bruno Hellberger Germany 1936
The Grösstonorgel Oskar Vierling Germany 1936
The Welte Licht-Ton-Orgel E.Welte Germany 1936
The Singing Keyboard F. Sammis USA 1936
The Warbo Formant Orgel Harald Bode & C. Warnke Germany 1937
The Melodium Harald Bode Germany 1937
John Cage - Silence 1939
The Kaleidophon Jörg Mager Germany 1939
The Novachord L Hammond & C.N.Williams USA 1939
The Voder & Vocoder Homer Dudley USA 1940
The Univox Univox Co. UK 1940
The Multimonica Harald Bode Germany 1940
The Pianophon - - 1940
The Ondioline Georges Jenny France 1940
The Solovox Hammond Organs Company USA 1940
The Electronic Sackbut Hugh Le Caine Canada 1945
The Tuttivox Harald Bode USA 1946
Hanert Electric Orchestra J. Hanert USA 1945
The Minshall Organ - USA 1947
The Clavioline M. Constant Martin France 1947
The Melochord Harald Bode Germany 1947
The Monochord Dr Freidrich Trautwein Germany 1948
The Free Music Machine Percy Grainger & Burnett Cross USA/Australia 1948
The Electronium Pi René Seybold Germany 1950
The Polychord Organ Harald Bode USA 1950
Dr Kent's Electronic Music Box Dr Earle Kent USA 1951
The Clavivox Raymond Scott USA 1952
The RCA Synthesiser I & II Harry Olsen & Hebert Belar USA 1952
Pierre Henry - Voile d'Orphée 1953
The Composertron Osmond Kendall Canada 1953
The Chombichord Harald Bode/ Constant Martin France 1953
The Chombichord Harald Bode/ Constant Martin France 1953
Edgard Varèse - Déserts 1954
Hugh LeCaine - Dripsody 1955
Spatiodynamique and Cybern?tique Tower Nicolas Sch?ffer France 1955
Louis & Bebe Barron - Forbidden Planet soundtrack USA 1956
György Ligeti - Glissandi 1957
The ANS Synthesiser Eugeniy Murzin Soviet Union 1958
Oramics Daphne Oram UK 1959
The Siemens Synthesiser H.Klein & W.Schaaf Germany 1959
The Side Man Wurlitzer USA 1959
Dr. Rainer Böhm, founder of the German kit home organs Germany 1959
Harald Bode, born October 19, 1909, was a German engineer and pioneer in the development of electronic music instruments. Bode worked as a researcher in signal processing and on the development of electronic music instruments at the Heinrich Institute for Oscillation Research at the Technical University of Berlin. In 1954, Bode developed the Melochord (later used by Karlheinz Stockhausen and others) in co-operation with the Studio for Electronic Music of the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (West German Broadcasting Corporation) and used the new device in musical performances. In 1961, Bode wrote a paper exploring the advantages of newly emerging transistor technology over older vacuum tube devices; his ideas were adopted by Robert Moog, Donald Buchla, and others. Bode developes theory, circuits and devices to the sound production and sound configuration. Bode will Develope and build a number of monophonic and polyphonic electronic organs and sound molders towards the developement of the commercial synthesizer.
1960-1970: Integrated Circuits
Integrated Circuits came into widespread used in instrument development during the early 1960's inspired by the writings of the German instrument designer Harald Bode. Robert Moog, Donald Buchla and others will create a new generation of easy to use, reliable modular electronic instruments.
Dr. Robert Arthur Moog, rhymes with "vogue", lived between May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005. Dr. Moog was an American pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer.
A fantastic book that covers these early days of development is
Analog Days by Pinch & Trocco.
Milan Electronic Music Studio director: Luciano Berio Italy 1960
Vladimir Ussachevsky - Wireless Fantasy 1960
Harald Bode developes a modular signal processor w/ ring modular and using voltage 1961
In 1961, the IBM 7094 became the first computer to sing, singing the song Daisy Bell. Vocals were programmed by John Kelly and Carol Lockbaum and the accompaniment was programmed by Max Mathews.
"Daisy Bell" was the last utterings of HAL in Kubrick's 2001
DIMI & Helsinki Electronic Music Studio Erkki Kurenniemi Finland 1961
Moog Synthesisers Robert Moog USA 1963
The Mellotron & Chamberlin Leslie Bradley UK 1963
Buchla Synthesisers Donald Buchla USA 1963
Don Buchla (April 18th, 1937— ) is a pioneer in the field of sound synthesizers, releasing his first units months after Robert Moog's first synthesizers. However, his instrument was arguably designed before Moog's. Buchla was also quick to integrate his electronic instrument creations into performances produced by Morton Subotnick and the San Francisco Tape Music Center & Ken Kesey's Trips Festivals. His electronic designs benefitted from these experiences.
The Donca-Matic DA-20 Keio Corp Japan 1963
The Synket Paul Ketoff UK 1963
Robert Moog - VCO and VCA 1964
it is worth mentioning Paul Ketoff, who was an electronic instrument developer in Rome, created a synthesizer instrument know as synket in 1964.
Tonus/ARP Synthesisers - Philip Dodds USA 1964
Philip Dodds "The Man from Arp" - Phil Dodds, was an audio engineer who appeared in the 1977 motion picture Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Working for ARP Instruments, Dodds was on the set to install and manage the ARP 2500 synthesizer. He worked on other films, such as Logan's Run, and Star Trek.
Steven Spielberg, offered him a part in the movie on the spot; he spent the next nine weeks filming the now-iconic final scenes of the movie. He has considerable screen time for an extra, playing the notes on the synthesizer under the direction of several scientists and musicians, and gazing raptly up at the alien spaceship. In the film's credits, Dodds's name appears twice — once as "Jean Claude" (as Philip Dodds) and once as "ARP Musician" (as Phil Dodds), though we don't know which said his one line: "What are we saying to each other?". Later, Philip will work as the vice president of R&D for Kurzweil Music. A fun fact seeing as I love sci-fi as much as synthesizers.
Ilhan Mimaroglu - Bowery Bum 1964
Pauline Oliveros - Bye Bye Butterfly 1964
Robert Moog - Voltage Controlled Filter 1965
The first known electronic DJ mixers date back to 1965
Rudolph Thomas Bozak (1910-1982), born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania was an audio electronics and acoustics designer and engineer in the field of sound reproduction. Bozak is often remembered today for his advanced designs of DJ mixers in the 1960s which allowed the development of the concept of disc jockey mixing and 'discotheques'.
Rudy Bozak's CMA-6-1 and CMA-10-1, 6 and 10-input monaural units of the mid 1960s, the peak of development was reached with the stereo Bozak CMA-10-2DL; a unit that was very quickly accepted as the standard of its day. The Bozak CMA mixers were expensive: they used high-grade Allen-Bradley components, hand-selected transistors, and of modular construction.
Francis Grasso (March 25, 1949 - March 20, 2001) was an American soul music disc jockey from New York City. In 1968, at the New York Club Sanctuary — a former German Baptist church (featured in the movie Klute) — Grasso starts beat matching records.
Moog Synthesizers become comercially available 1966
PAiA Electronics, Inc John Paia Simonton USA 1967
Important moment in the History of Electronic Music
Jon Weiss, "the Man from Moog,” arrives in London with the Rolling Stones’ Moog synthesizer
summer 1968 - September 1968
MUSYS Software David Cockrell & Peter Grogno UK 1968
John Lennon / Yoko Ono - Revolution 9 1968
Salvatore Martirano - L's. G. A. 1968
Arne Nordheim - Solitaire 1968
Vladimir Ussachevsky - Computer Piece No. 1 1968
Performance is a 1968-70 British crime drama film directed by Donald Cammell
features Moog Synthesizer compositions by Mick Jagger in the film.
Jon Weiss and Jagger came up with the idea of using the synthesizer as a prop in Performance:
“The Moog with its rows of knobs and dials would make a perfect addition”
the patch that the man from Moog, Jon Weiss, had set up for Mick on the synthesizer used in Performance was used to create the soundtrack for Kenneth Anger’s short film Invocation of My Demon Brother (1969), which featured a soundtrack by Mick Jagger.
The synthesizer from this point forward will be part of pop culture.
August 15–18, 1969 : Moog / Arp at Woodstock?
If the Arp was at Woodstock, it was with Edgar winter who at the time played both drums and keyboards in his brother Johnny winter's band.
Edgar Winter explained the epic genesis of Frankenstein:
“The original riff for Frankenstein came when I was playing with Johnny Winter.
As a matter of fact, we played it at Woodstock, as a jam"
"I had written this riff basically thinking (how) I wanted an instrumental
that I could use as a showcase."
"Basically, there were Moogs and ARPs back then. And the Moog was a built-in unit with the keyboards being a part of the control unit itself. But the ARP-2600 had a separate keyboard, a remote keyboard that was attached to the brain or the guts of the instrument with an umbilical-type cable. I looked at the keyboard and I said, ‘Wow, that looks pretty light. It looks like you could put a strap on that thing like a guitar.’ That’s exactly what I proceeded to do. The rest, as they say, is history. The recorded version of Frankenstein won't be released until 1973."
If a Moog was at Woodstock, it wasn't until the last day of the festival.
I have heard a tale that hallucinating hippies were scared out of the fields
by what they thought were the sounds of spaceships landing.
EMS VCS3 - 1969
Dr. Peter Zinovieff is a British inventor of Russian ethnicity. He is most noted for his EMS company, which made the famous VCS3 synthesiser in the late '60s. The synthesiser was used by many early progressive rock bands such as Pink Floyd, White Noise, Kraftwerk and David Bowie. The EMS influence was significant and can be traced into many contemporary products. The EMS company broke up in 1979.
Delia Derbyshire - Love Without Sound (1969)
EMS Synthesisers Peter Zinovieff & David Cockrell UK 1969
Mario Davidovsky - Synchronisms No. 5 1969
Technics corporation will invent the direct drive turntable SP-10 in 1969
1970-1980:The commercial synthesizer
Arp, Buchla, EMS, Moog, Oberheim, Roland, & Yamaha all releasing various models & types of synthesizer. A high amount of hybrid developement of synthesizers in that industry synthesizers released contain both modular and digital types of features.
appreciation for the modular component
Historically speaking, analog oscillators(VCO) were notorious for being difficult to get in tune and stay in tune. Having the proper equipment, talent & patients to calibrate VCOs, well, at that time, was a very unique talent. Back in the day if your modular was going out of tune, calibrating a VCO was very different than say tuning a guitar or a piano, and had to be done by trained electrician from the Moog company. Even today if your VCO is in need of calibration, this procedure still should be done by the manufacturer of the module.
One of the huge problems of the original Moog modulars that made them go out of tune or drift as it's called, making modulars difficult or reliably for live performances was heat. Whenever you are using a modular synthesizer, you have a knob that is used to adjust frequency, which is basically the tuning of the VCO. You need this to give control over beating and other things that modular synths are good at. The problem with the old synths is that they drifted as they warmed up. Sometimes a whole semitone or more, and even more so while you were playing them. The reason tune drifting was a problem on old modular synthesizers was the exponential converters, integrator caps and integrator reset switches inside the core of the oscillators that were temperature sensitive. Other issues, such as the control voltage loads aginst the VCO and power supply systems used on the vintage modular synths also added to this problem.
In an attempt to resolve this drifting problem, Dr. Moog created a product called the scale programmer. The first Moog 950B Scale Programmer was built in 1969. This was a case full of knobs, one knob for each key on the keyboard to tune each one. A real-time device for musicians to stabilize the notes within a range during a live performance. This device was used in many of the long moog recording sessions. Here is a picture of the Moog 950B SCALE PROGRAMMER. Designed to be connected to the Moog 950 Keyboard Controller. The 950B bypasses the 950's equal-tempered interval control, thus allowing for the individual tuning of each note on the keyboard. The 950B consists of sixty independent manual controls, each of which varies the magnitude of an interval between two successive voltage levels on the 950. Tuning was continuously variable from 0 to 2 semitones.
Harold Bode becomes chief engineer of the Moog synthesizer company.
Moog - mini-moog modular systems
Aries 300 modular synthesizers
Buchla 200 series modular
GROOVE System Max Mathews USA 1970
EML Electrocomp 400 - 1970
The Optigan Mattel Inc. USA 1970
The Electronium-Scott Raymond Scott USA 1970
Donald Buchla - Buchla 200 1970
Donald Buchla - Buchla 500 1971
Con Brio Synthesisers - USA 1971
Allen Digital Computer Organ Ralph Deutsch/Allen Organ Company USA 1971
Donald Buchla - The Music Easel 1972
Roland Synthesisers Roland Corporation Japan 1972
Technics starts manufacturing it's model SL1200, with a pitch control & tangential arm in 1972
Jon Weiss' "Man from Moog'" Synthesizer lives on...
As is well known, Mick Jagger did not take up the synthesizer—but, according to Pinch and Trocco, the Moog synthesizer originally purchased by the Stones lived on:
It was sold on to the Hansa by the Wall recording studio in Berlin, where in 1973 Christoph Franke of Tangerine Dream purchased it for $15,000. The Moog sequencer became the defining element of Tangerine Dream’s sound, and the Moog became an enduring influence on the many waves of German electronic music in the 1970s. This influence eventually provided renewed stimulus in the United States when Donna Summer’s I Feel Love (1977), produced by Giorgio Moroder in a Munich studio with the aid of a modular Moog, along with Kraftwerk’s Trans-Europe Express (1977), were taken up in black dance culture.
If the Performance modular synth was indeed sold to Christoph Franke of Tangerine Dream in 1973, then the first album made by that group on which that particular Moog appeared was Phaedra, recorded late in 1973 and released early in 1974, an album that is now considered an essential album of electronic music, and a breakthrough in the use of synthesizer/sequencer technology.
Edgar Winter’s Frankenstein - 1973
Maplin Synthesisers Trevor G Marshall Australia/USA 1973
NED - Synclavier - first digital synth 1973
In 1973, Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, widely regarded as the "father of hip-hop culture," performed at block parties in his Bronx neighborhood and developed a technique of mixing back and forth between two identical records to extend the rhythmic instrumental segment, or break. Turntablism, the art of using turntables not only to play music but to manipulate sound and create original music was created.
Harald Bode retires from Moog in 1974
Roland - SH3a - commercial additive synth 1974
RMI - Harmonic Synthesizer - commercial additive synth 1974
The Synclavier New England Digital Corporation USA 1975
Korg Synthesisers Korg Japan 1975
hip-hop DJ Theodore invents record scratching technique by accident 1975
EVI wind instrument Nyle Steiner USA 1975
PPG Synthesisers Wolfgang Palm Germany 1975
Yamaha - CS80 1976
PPG 1003 sonic carrier - 1st programmable mono/duo synth 1976
Yamaha Synthesisers Yamaha Corp Japan 1976
Oberheim - OB1 - 1st commercial programmable mono synth 1977
British company Citronic produces the first crossfader, model SMP101, in 1977
Oberheim Synthesisers Thomas Oberheim USA 1978
Donald Buchla - Touché 1978
EDP Wasp Chris Hugget UK 1978
PPG - Wavecomputer 360 - (Wavetable synthesis) 1978
Sequential Circuits - microprocessor controlled Prophet10 & P5 1978
Serge Synthesisers - - 1979
The Fairlight CMI Peter Vogel & Kim Ryrie Australia 1979
Sequential Circuits - Dave Smith - USA 1979
NED - Synclavier - First FM 1979
Fairlight CMI - First Sampler Workstation 1979
The next and current generation of electronic instruments were the digital synthesisers of the 1980s.
These synthesisers were software controlled offering complex control over various forms of synthesis
previously only available on extremely expensive studio synthesisers.
Early models of this generation included the Yamaha, Roland, Oberheim, e-mu & Korg.
Simmons Drum Synthesisers Simmons UK 1980
Herbert Brün - i toLD You so! 1981
Casio Synthesisers Casio Ltd Japan 1981
The McLeyvier David McLey USA 1981
Kawai Synthesiser Kawai Musical Instrument Co Japan -
E-mu Systems - The Emulator USA 1981
Donald Buchla - Buchla 400 1982
MIDI (introduced) 1983
Sequential Circuits - Prophet600 / First Midi Synthesizer 1982
Kurzweil Synthesisers/Samplers Raymond Kurzweill USA/Korea 1983
Oxford Synthesiser Company Chris Hugget UK 1983
Jesse Saunders produces what is considered the first house music track, "On & On." 1983
Disco-influenced electronic style of dance music called house music emerged in Chicago. The name was derived from the Warehouse Club in Chicago, where resident DJ Frankie Knuckles mixed old disco classics and Eurosynth pop. NYC disco DJ Larry Levan, known for his eclectic mixes, gains a cult following, at the Paradise Garage Club, creates the New York Garage Style of House. 1983-1985
Yamaha - DX7 - Digital & FM synthesis 1983
OSC - OSCar - real-time w/ analog filters 1983
Frank Zappa - The Girl in the Magnesium Dress 1984
Akai Musical Instruments Akai Corporation Japan 1984
Sequential Circuits - SixTrak - first multitimbral 1984
Alesis Corporation Keith Barr USA 1984
Techno music emerges from the Detroit club scene. Detroit, Being geographically located between Chicago and New York, DJs start combing elements of Chicago house and New York garage along with European imports. Techno distanced itself from disco's roots by becoming almost purely electronic with synthesized beats. 1985
Frank Zappa - Porn Wars 1985
Ensoniq Synthesisers & Samplers - USA 1985
Sequential Circuits Prophet VS (Vector Synthesis) - 1985
Casio - CZ101 - First battery-powered all digital mini-synth 1985
Frank Zappa - The Beltway Bandits 1986
Steinberg Software Steinberg Germany -
GEM Synthesisers - - -
Crumar Synthesisers - - -
Harold Bode dies in New York, 1987
Donald Buchla - Buchla 700 1987
Carla Scaletti - sunSurgeAutomata 1987
Iannis Xenakis - Taurhiphanie 1988
Emu Systems - Proteus - First dedicated ROMpler 1989
The Evolution of Computer Music Systems
Florida EDM Tribute
Donald Buchla - Thunder 1990
Drew Krause - Bark 1990
John Melby - Concerto for Flute and Synthesized Sounds 1990
John Oswald - Spectre 1990
Waldorf Microwave (WaveTable Synthesis) Germany 1990
Yamaha SY22 (Vector Synthesis) 1990
Korg Wavestation (Vector Synthesis) 1991
Donald Buchla - Lightning 1991
Scott Wyatt - Counterpoints 1992
Cindy McTee - Études 4 Alto Saxophone & Computer-Generated Tape 1992
John Miles - Last of the Barkeaters 1993
Christopher Weise - Witness 1993
Yamaha - VL1 - first physical modelling synth 1994
Clavia - Nord Lead - 1st Virtual Analog (VA) 1995
MOTM (Module of the Month) - Paul Schreiber - 1995
Rubberduck - first softsynth 1996.
Donald Buchla - Lightning II 1996
Donnacha Dennehy - Metropolis Mutabilis 1996
Sever Tipei - Curses 1996
Andrew Walters - Moth to Flame 1996
Steinberg - VST 1996
Aphex Twin - Bucephalus Bouncing Ball 1997
Seer Systems - Reality - First Modular Soft Synth 1997
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